(AGI) Paris, Dec 2 - The Organisation for Security andCooperation in Europe (OSCE) estimates that between 1999 and2014 around 5.4 billion dollars went towards kickbacks. A totalof over 400 cases of international corruption were noted, ofwhich only 207 had already gone to court. In the first OSCEreport on the ability of member states to tackle the issue,published in Paris on Tuesday, Secretary-General Anguel Gurriaestimated that the average kickback was worth 13.8 milliondollars, although some were as high as 149 million, impactingon some 10.9 percent of transactions and 34.5 percent ofprofits. At the individual state level, the report showed thatthe U.S. was driving the anti-corruption battle, with 128 casesclosed and sanctioned, followed by Germany with 26 cases, Koreawith 11 and 6 in Italy, Switzerland and the UK. Actual peoplewere implicated in 263 of total cases, accused of corruption,compared with around 164 cases of moral corruption (427 intotal). Most of those found guilty of offering bribes werepublic servants or company employees, aimed at obtaining acommission in 57 percent of cases. Corruption undermines growthand development, Mr Gurria said, and corrupt people had to bebrought to justice. The average length of trials was around 7.3years, extending to 15 years in complicated cases in somecountries. OSCE has called on the member countries to clampdown on infringements and make trials more effectual. In Italyit takes between 6 and 11 years, on average, for a sentence tobe served, with time-barred periods of around 10 years which,in most cases, fail to achieve resolution. Member states needto bolster their legislative powers and introduce effective anddissuasive sanctions. (AGI) . .